Education Research by Caylyn Harvey
- 1 Annotated Bibliography
- 1.1 Vision and Change
- 1.2 Implementing Recommendations for Introductory Biology by Writing a New Textbook
- 1.3 Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tips
- 1.4 Live Lecture Versus Video-Recorded Lecture: Are Students Voting With Their Feet?
- 1.5 Increasing the Use of Student-Centered Pedagogies from Moderate to High Improves Student Learning and Attitudes about Biology
- 1.6 Bio 2010
- 1.7 Impact of Cold-Calling on Student Voluntary Participation
- 1.8 Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
- 1.9 Computer Simulations Improve University Instructional Laboratories
- 1.10 Improvements from a Flipped Classroom May Simply Be the Fruits of Active Learning
- 1.11 A Campus-Wide Investigation of Clicker Implementation: The Status of Peer Discussion in STEM Classes
- 1.12 Learn before Lecture: A Strategy That Improves Learning Outcomes in a Large Introductory Biology Class
- 1.13 Professors Can Learn to Be More Effective Instructors
- 1.14 Integrating Concepts in Biology: A Model for More Effective Ways to Introduce Students to Biology
- 1.15 PULSE Progression Levels Announced!
- 1.16 Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking
- 1.17 Beyond the Biology: A Systematic Investigation of Noncontent Instructor Talk in an Introductory Biology Course
- 1.18 The Benefits of Using Clickers in Small-Enrollment Seminar-Style Biology Courses
- 1.19 Combining Peer Discussion with Instructor Explanation Increases Student Learning from In-Class Concept Questions
- 1.20 Talking to Learn: Why Biology Students Should Be Talking in Classrooms and How to Make It Happen
- 1.21 An Active Textbook Converts "Vision and Tweak" to Vision and Change
- 2 SURE/CURE
- 2.1 Assessment of Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: A Meeting Report.
- 2.2 Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive
- 2.3 A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data
- 2.4 The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design
- 2.5 Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation
- 2.6 Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences
- 2.7 Promoting Undergraduate Interest, Preparedness, and Professional Pursuit in the Sciences: An Outcomes Evaluation of the SURE Program at Emory University
- 2.8 A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics
- 2.9 Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE): First Findings
- 2.10 Undergraduate Research Experiences Support Science Career Decisions and Active Learning
- 2.11 A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time
- 2.12 Comparing the Impact of Course-Based and Apprentice-Based Research Experiences in a Life Science Laboratory Curriculum
- 2.13 Considering the Role of Affect in Learning: Monitoring Students’ Self-Efficacy, Sense of Belonging, and Science Identity
- 2.14 A Comprehensive Faculty, Staff, and Student Training Program Enhances Student Perceptions of a Course-Based Research Experience at a Two-Year Institution
Vision and Change
AAAS. “Vision and Change: A Call to Action, Final Report.” Vision and Change: A Call to Action, Final Report. N.p., 2011. Web. 2 Sept. 2015.
This book lays out the core concepts biology students should understand and core competencies they should develop. It gives a list of assessment instruments and student-centered learning resources that are available. Moving forward, the book is a call to action in the sense that it suggests that biology curricula and departments be restructured in order to become more interdisciplinary and more focused on active learning.
Implementing Recommendations for Introductory Biology by Writing a New Textbook
Barsoum, M. J. et al. “Implementing Recommendations for Introductory Biology by Writing a New Textbook.” CBE Life Sci Educ 12.1 (2013): 106–16. Web.
Using national recommendations, the authors of the ICB textbook designed the course to emphasize data interpretation while focusing less on memorizing a large amount of information. The authors did an experiment to test the effectiveness of their redesigned textbook in comparison to a traditional introductory biology course. During the semester-long experiment, assessments demonstrated no difference between students taking the traditional course and students taking the ICB course. A semester later, the ICB students had retained more content knowledge than traditional students, though the difference was not significant (p=0.06). In data interpretation, the ICB students significantly improved over time (p=0.015) and were significantly better at interpreting data by the end of the semester than the traditional students (p<0.01 and p<0.05 in the final two assessments of the semester). In addition, ICB students were more likely to have more accurate perceptions of biology as a discipline as well as of their own abilities as scientists.
take-aways for essay:
no difference in content knowledge (but better retained?)
better data interpreters (this was lost when they were no longer taking the ICB course)
more accurate perception of their abilities and biology
Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tips
Caldwell, Jane E. “Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tips.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 6.1 (2007): 9–20. www.lifescied.org. Web.
This is a review of literature which shows the many uses for clickers in the classroom. It cites many studies and paper that have demonstrated the efficacy and efficiency of clickers to assess student preparedness, understanding, and recall, and to improve the environment in the classroom with activities and more active learning. This article is also a guide to best practice tips for using clickers and writing effective clicker questions.
This article also stresses the benefits of learning that are brought about when instructors can really assess how well their students are understanding the material in real time with this immediate feed back. In one paper that this article cites (Wood 2004), one professor saw that even though 90% of the students could recall a particular rule of genetics, only 48% of them could apply it: “For me, this was a moment of revelation. … for the first time in over 20 years of lecturing I knew… that over half the class didn't ‘get it’…. Because I had already explained the phenomenon as clearly as I could, I simply asked the students to debate briefly with their neighbors and see who could convince whom about which answer was correct. The class erupted into animated conversation. After a few minutes, I asked for a revote, and now over 90% gave the correct answer…”
Live Lecture Versus Video-Recorded Lecture: Are Students Voting With Their Feet?
Cardall, Scott, Edward Krupat, and Michael Ulrich. “Live Lecture Versus Video-Recorded Lecture: Are Students Voting With Their Feet?:” Academic Medicine 83.12 (2008): 1174–1178. CrossRef. Web.
This study assessed students' perceptions and use of attending live lectures versus watching video recordings of lectures online. They used a survey that asked questions about students' reasons for watching the videos and reasons for attending lectures. They found that students chose to go to class because they were not motivated to watch the lectures on their own, they wanted to show professionalism or respect for the teacher, they wanted to talk with classmates, and they wanted to feel like they were getting the most out of their tuition. Students who chose to watch the lectures cited their reasons as being able to learn at their own pace and on their own time. Students also cited their most important reason for using the 2x speed feature of the video recordings was to save time, thought they also used it to rewatch sections they had not understood and pause to look up information. Students who responded to the survey said they attend an average of 60% of the lectures, though 30% of them exclusively watch the video recordings.
Increasing the Use of Student-Centered Pedagogies from Moderate to High Improves Student Learning and Attitudes about Biology
Connell, Georgianne L., Deborah A. Donovan, and Timothy G. Chambers. “Increasing the Use of Student-Centered Pedagogies from Moderate to High Improves Student Learning and Attitudes about Biology.” CBE life sciences education 15.1 (2016): n. pag. PubMed. Web.
This study tested the difference between a "moderately student-centered" approach and an "extensively student-centered" approach. They distinguished these approaches by the number of active learning strategies employed in the classroom; the extensive approach used more active learning strategies than the moderate approach, but both were active classrooms. The two classes were taught by the same professor in the same semester and covered the same materials. They found significant results: "Students in the Extensive section had significantly higher mean scores on course exams. They also scored significantly higher on a content post-assessment when accounting for pre-assessment score and student demographics. Item response theory analysis supported these results. Students in the Extensive section had greater changes in post-instruction abilities compared with students in the Moderate section. Finally, students in the Extensive section exhibited a statistically greater expert shift in their views about biology and learning biology."
Council, National Research. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2003. Print.
This book gives recommendations for the restructuring of the undergraduate biology major. It calls for more math to be integrated into courses, more interdisciplinary thinning and projects, new approaches through new assessment techniques, more independent resources, more seminar courses, and a reexamination of the MCAT requirements. It also lists the main concepts that need to be covered in biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, math, and computer science for a biology student. The new biology major they propose is so interdisciplinary that it is almost just a general science major, and would require the restructuring of several departments.
"Communicating how scientific advances and discoveries are made is a crucial part of undergraduate scientific education. First, exposure to the experimental and conceptual basis of key discoveries gives students a deeper understanding of scientific principles. Reading a classic paper can give students a sense of scientific inquiry at its best." (29)
Impact of Cold-Calling on Student Voluntary Participation
Dallimore, Elise J., Julie H. Hertenstein, and Marjorie B. Platt. “Impact of Cold-Calling on Student Voluntary Participation.” Journal of Management Education (2012): 1052562912446067. jme.sagepub.com. Web.
Significantly more students answer questions voluntarily in high cold calling classes (and more than in low cold calling). The number of students voluntarily answering questions in high cold calling questions increases over time. In high cold calling, students' comfort with participating in class increases over time, while students in the low cold calling environment show no change in their comfort with participating. This research provides evidence that cold calling is a good teaching strategy because it encourages students to participate more and students become more comfortable over time.
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Freeman, Scott et al. “Active Learning Increases Student Performance in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111.23 (2014): 8410–8415. PubMed. Web.
This study found that students who are in active learning classes perform better and fail less than students in traditional classes. "[O]n average, student performance increased by just under half a SD with active learning compared with lecturing...[O]n average, students in traditional lecture courses are 1.5 times more likely to fail that students in courses with active learning." The study also said that if the experiments they analyzed had been done as clinical trials, they would have been stopped because of the huge and obvious benefit to the experimental group (active learners) compared to the control (traditional lecture).
Active learning definition: "Active learning engages students in the process of learning through activities and/or discussion in class, as opposed to passively listening to an expert. It emphasizes higher-order thinking and often involves group work."
Computer Simulations Improve University Instructional Laboratories
Gibbons, Nicola J. et al. “Computer Simulations Improve University Instructional Laboratories.” Cell Biology Education 3.4 (2004): 263–269. www.lifescied.org. Web.
The researchers found that computer-based simulations can be very useful in decreasing the amount of time it takes to perform a lab and in increasing student performance. They qualified, however, that the results are quite dependent on the information and the method, as it is more appropriate for some labs than for others. For example, they saw results when they replaced a karyotyping lab, but not when they replaced a bioinformatics lab.
Improvements from a Flipped Classroom May Simply Be the Fruits of Active Learning
Jensen, Jamie L., Tyler A. Kummer, and Patricia D. d M. Godoy. “Improvements from a Flipped Classroom May Simply Be the Fruits of Active Learning.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 14.1 (2015): ar5. www.lifescied.org. Web.
This article describes a study that compares two classes that employ active learning. One class uses flipped lectures, the learn-before-lecture strategy in which students participate in technology-driven, active learning activities at home, and then have a lecture in class to Elaborate the information and processes learned at home and Evaluate the students' progress. The other class follows the same "active content attainment" through the "Engage, Explore, Explain" method, but does it in class, and then sends the students home with work after class to finish the Elaborate and Evaluate. The study found that there was no significant difference between the flipped class and the normal class, and they concluded that this was because both classes use an active learning structure. Thus, the improved results we typically see from "flipped" classes are not because the students are learning before they come to class, but because the flipped classroom helps foster an active learning environment.
A Campus-Wide Investigation of Clicker Implementation: The Status of Peer Discussion in STEM Classes
Lewin, Justin D. et al. “A Campus-Wide Investigation of Clicker Implementation: The Status of Peer Discussion in STEM Classes.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 15.1 (2016): ar6. www.lifescied.org. Web.
This study used high school and middle school teachers to observe over 250 university STEM classes to collect information on the instructional methods, including if and how clickers were used. The researchers found that clickers were used in a variety of ways, and the use of clickers did not guarantee a change in the amount of lecture time. Classes that used clicker questions but eliminated the peer discussion aspect did not see the full benefits of this technique, so the researchers suggest that clicker questions should be difficult in order to inspire discussion, and should always be accompanied by the chance for students to talk amongst each other to articulate their reasonings.
Learn before Lecture: A Strategy That Improves Learning Outcomes in a Large Introductory Biology Class
Moravec, Marin et al. “Learn before Lecture: A Strategy That Improves Learning Outcomes in a Large Introductory Biology Class.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 9.4 (2010): 473–481. www.lifescied.org. Web.
The researchers of this study wanted to incorporate the methods of active learning in the classroom without displacing any of the content imparted to students. Thus, they chose to introduce material outside of class in their "Learn before lecture" experiment. They took four or five powerpoint slides that had been used in previous years during lecture and moved them to be homework assignments pre-lecture, as narrated slides or with an associated worksheet. They paired these slides with questions, and the percentage of students who answered five out of six of these questions right in the LBL year was significantly higher than the percentage who answered five out of six correctly in the previous years before LBL (p<0.001). The researchers concluded that LBLs combined with the active learning activities that they create time for in the classroom can significantly impact learning gains in large into bio classes.
Professors Can Learn to Be More Effective Instructors
Flaherty, Colleen. "New Study Suggests That Faculty Development Has a Demonstrable Impact on Student Learning." New Study Suggests That Faculty Development Has a Demonstrable Impact on Student Learning. Inside Higher Ed, 10 Feb. 2016. Web. 12 Feb. 2016.
This article is about a book, Faculty Development and Student Learning: Assessing the Connections (Indiana University Press), which details a study done at Carleton College and Washington State University to determine the effects of faculty development on student learning. Faculty who went through development training provided raters with students' assessments from before and after the instructor training intervention, and raters found that the students from after the intervention scored higher on every piece of the designed rubric. In the end, the articles says that the authors of the book claim that faculty development is worth the investment. At the very least, we can start collecting samples of assessments as a base line, keep moving forward, and see how we can develop from there.
Integrating Concepts in Biology: A Model for More Effective Ways to Introduce Students to Biology
Prestwich, K. N., and A. M. Sheehy. “Integrating Concepts in Biology: A Model for More Effective Ways to Introduce Students to Biology.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 14.3 (2015): fe3. www.lifescied.org. Web.
This is a book review of the ICB textbook. It praises the book's approach for its focus on core concepts, its emphasis on leading students to construct their own knowledge, and its use of illustrations and online links. The review raises specific issues with a few elements of the book, like the informal jargon and some terminology. Overall, the review gives positive commentary on the ICB textbook's efforts to revolutionize the way students learn introductory biology.
"It exemplifies an innovative and enlightened new direction in education that is worthy of emulation by those who see the biology elephant with different perspectives."
PULSE Progression Levels Announced!
“PULSE Progression Levels Announced!” N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2016.
The Partnership for Undergraduate Life Sciences Education (PULSE) certification process was created in order to encourage undergraduate institutions to strive to reach the appropriate levels of change and progress in their science departments. Davidson was assessed along with 7 other institutions in the pilot program of this certification process, and Davidson was the only school to receive PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished.
Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking
Rowe, Matthew P. et al. “Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 14.3 (2015): ar30. www.lifescied.org. Web.
These educators have restructured their course very similarly to the way we have restructured ours, with similar results. They emphasize the nature of scientific discovery along with the facts of science, they incorporate case studies, and use basic math principles. They also tested the efficacy of their class against a traditional class using a pre-test/post-test design, and found that in no semester did the traditional students improve their critical thinking (all p>0.49), but in every semester the FoS (Foundations of Science) students did (all p<0.01).
This article is a good example of what we are trying to show: it (the restructuring of courses to fit recommendations and teach students) has been done and has been successful.
Beyond the Biology: A Systematic Investigation of Noncontent Instructor Talk in an Introductory Biology Course
Seidel, S. B., A. L. Reggi, J. N. Schinske, L. W. Burrus, and K. D. Tanner. "Beyond the Biology: A Systematic Investigation of Noncontent Instructor Talk in an Introductory Biology Course." Cell Biology Education 14.4 (2015): n. pag. Web.
This article reports a study that analyzed the words that professors say in the classroom that do not pertain to the content of the class. The researchers listened to recordings of most of the class meetings of a course throughout a semester. The class was team-taught by two tenured professors who had federal research grants, active laboratories, and were "committed to scientific teaching and strove to include active learning, equity and diversity, and assessment strategies in each class session." The researchers defined "noncontent" speak as anything that was said by the instructor to the whole class that was not specific to course content, or an analogy for course content, or setting up the class schedule or homework for the day. With all the "noncontent" words they had left, the researchers divided everything into five main categories: building the instructor/student relationship, establishing classroom culture, explaining pedagogical choices, sharing personal experiences, and unmasking science. They further broke those categories down into smaller sections, and could also evaluate the differences in the amount of each type of comment said on each day or by each of the two professors. For example, they found that quotes representing at least three of the five main categories were present in 97% of the class sessions recorded. Another example of their analyses of their statistics is they also found that one of the professors said significantly more "sharing personal experience" noncontent statements than the other.
The article was particularly interesting because the study ist he first to ever examine what is said in the classroom that does not relate to the class. It would be interesting going forward if someone could do a study to see how those extra words actually affect student learning.
The Benefits of Using Clickers in Small-Enrollment Seminar-Style Biology Courses
Smith, Michelle K., Caleb Trujillo, and Tin Tin Su. “The Benefits of Using Clickers in Small-Enrollment Seminar-Style Biology Courses.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 10.1 (2011): 14–17. www.lifescied.org. Web.
The researchers believed that clickers are very useful in large classes, but wanted to discover if they are also effective in small classes. They introduced clicker questions about the readings of papers and case studies in an 11-student class. The students reported that the clicker questions motivated them to read the papers and come to class prepared. The professor said he had previously used reading quizzes, but that even when students got the answers correct, they would often tune out for the rest of the class. The researcher found that even in a small class, clickers helped engage the students and gave each an opportunity to consider every question, instead of listening passively to another student who is called on to answer a question they don't know.
Combining Peer Discussion with Instructor Explanation Increases Student Learning from In-Class Concept Questions
Smith, M. K. et al. “Combining Peer Discussion with Instructor Explanation Increases Student Learning from In-Class Concept Questions.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 10.1 (2011): 55–63. www.lifescied.org. Web.
The researchers compared three different approaches of learning in the classroom to determine the best way to use clickers: just clickers, clickers plus instructor explanation, and just instructor explanation. They found that the combination of clickers plus instructor explanation yielded better results than when compared with either alone. They also separated students into strong, medium, and weak, and found that for the weak students who were also nonmajors, the combination approach was only slightly better than the instructor explanation alone. The strongest students (both majors and nonmajors) were not helped at all by instructor explanation alone, which shows the importance of peer discussion.
Talking to Learn: Why Biology Students Should Be Talking in Classrooms and How to Make It Happen
Tanner, Kimberly D. “Talking to Learn: Why Biology Students Should Be Talking in Classrooms and How to Make It Happen.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 8.2 (2009): 89–94. www.lifescied.org. Web.
Tanner says that pretty much everyone agrees that students need to be talking in the classroom. You don't typically meet resistance to that concept, but you will meet resistance to the more complex teaching approaches of introducing that to the classroom. Tanner insists that "student talk" is a core part of any innovative pedagogy in use today, and the practice itself can be established in any classroom easily. To demonstrate the effectiveness of student talk, Tanner describes a clicker experiment done in a large class. Students answered a multiple choice question, then were allowed to discuss the question in small groups and then answer the question again. After that, students were asked a second question that would have required them to generalize the knowledge they should have learned through the first question. The percentage of students who answered the second question correctly was significantly higher than the percentage who answered the first question correctly by themselves, and significantly higher than the percentage who answered correctly after discussion. Also, "students whose answers to the first question were incorrect initially but correct after discussion were 77% correct on the second isomorphic question, whereas those who were incorrect initially and again incorrect after discussion were only 44% correct on the second isomorphic question." This suggests that the students are learning how to generalize the concepts. The most interesting find was that based on the number of initial correct answers, the researchers found that fewer than half of the discussion groups would have included a person who got the answer right on their first try. Thus, the study showed that talking together helped students learn, even when none of them knew the answer originally.
One very useful thing from Tanner is that she lays out her argument very well. She stresses that talking is very important to the education of students, and she uses simple, effective words like "key," "accessible," "easily integrated," "minimal effort," and "significant impact" in her conclusion to really get her point across.
An Active Textbook Converts "Vision and Tweak" to Vision and Change
Wagner, James D. et al. “An Active Textbook Converts ‘Vision and Tweak’ to Vision and Change | CourseSource.” CourseSource (2015): n. pag. Web. 2 Dec. 2015.
This article explains that the creation of the ICB textbook was in response to the call for a change in biology education, many aspects of which were formally declared by the Vision and Change conference and subsequent publication. In addition to creating a better environment in which to learn, the ICB textbook also creates a better environment in which to teach. Not only are the students more engaged, but their professors are as well. The article also stresses that all of ICB's weaknesses are actually strengths: the consistent (possibly old-fashioned) color scheme was chosen so that color blind people could tell the difference between them; some of the figures are missing error bars or other notations, but that is how they were published in the original papers; and some of the research examples seem forced to fit into a chapter because they could actually fit into many chapters, which lends itself to the claim the textbook makes that the core concepts are connected in so many ways.
"It is not uncommon to end class totally surprised by what new ideas or issues we covered in class. Because of this spontaneity, we are more engaged and responsive to the students' learning."
"The [traditional] class does not allow students to think critically."
"Among the faculty from around the country who reviewed ICB prior to its publication, the fear of change was the most common reason they gave for not wanting to adopt this new approach."
I don't think all of my citations are correct--need to check this
Assessment of Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: A Meeting Report.
Auchincloss, Lisa Corwin et al. “Assessment of Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: A Meeting Report.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 13.1 (2014): 29–40. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"During CUREnet meetings and discussions, it became apparent that there is need for a clear definition of what constitutes a CURE and systematic exploration of what makes CUREs meaningful in terms of student learning. Thus, we assembled a small working group of people with expertise in CURE instruction and assessment to: 1) draft an operational definition of a CURE, with the aim of defining what makes a laboratory course or project a 'research experience'; 2) summarize research on CUREs, as well as findings from studies of undergraduate research internships that would be useful for thinking about how students are influenced by participating in CUREs; and 3) identify areas of greatest need with respect to CURE assessment, and directions for future research on and evaluation of CUREs. This report summarizes the outcomes and recommendations of this meeting."
This meeting report looks useful for defining CUREs and examining the perceived benefits of CUREs. (worth looking at)
THE CORWIN ARTICLE LATER IS PROBABLY BETTER BECAUSE IT IS MORE RECENT (here, they are defining five key characteristics of a CURE, where in the later Corwin piece, they have narrowed it down to three).
Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive
Bangera, Gita, and Sara E. Brownell. “Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences Can Make Scientific Research More Inclusive.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 13.4 (2014): 602–606. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"In this essay, we highlight barriers faced by students interested in pursuing an undergraduate independent research experience and factors that impact how faculty members select students for these limited positions. We examine how bringing research experiences into the required course work for students could mitigate these issues and ultimately make research more inclusive."
Research at scale, more inclusive, easier access. (point)
A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data
Brownell, Sara E. et al. “A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data.” CBE Life Sciences Education 14.2 (2015): n. pag. PubMed Central. Web. 1 Apr. 2016.
"Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking."
"While many CUREs currently exist, most of these have been small-sized classes taught to students who volunteer to participate. However, volunteer students and nonvolunteer students have previously been shown to have different affective gains from a CURE (Brownell et al., 2013), indicating that findings from volunteer populations may not be generalizable to students in required CUREs. Additionally, assessment of CUREs has been primarily in the form of student self-report surveys (e.g., CURE survey; Lopatto et al., 2008). While student self-reporting can be useful if one is interested in affective measures such as confidence or interest, it is not as effective at determining students’ abilities to interpret data or how similar their thinking processes are to expert scientists. Different means of assessment need to be used to further probe the impact of CUREs on students (Brownell and Kloser, 2015; Corwin et al., 2015)."
"Finding 1: Students Show a More Expert-Like Conception of What It Means to Think Like a Scientist at the End of the Course and Perceive That Their Own Thinking Has Changed." "Finding 2: Students Indicated That Specific Aspects of the Course Focused on Data Analysis and Collaboration, Including the Mutant Group Discussions, Were the Most Useful for Their Learning How to Think Like a Scientist." "Finding 3: Students Showed Improvement in Their Ability to Analyze and Interpret Data."
(probably worth looking at)
The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design
Corwin, Lisa A. et al. “The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 14.4 (2015): ar37. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes."
right type of research (worth looking at)
Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation
Corwin, Lisa A., Mark J. Graham, and Erin L. Dolan. “Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 14.1 (2015): es1. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"Most research and evaluation of CUREs have focused on documenting student outcomes. What remains largely unaddressed is which aspects of CUREs lead to desirable student outcomes."
"We hypothesize that CUREs allow students to participate in a unique combination of activities that result in progressive achievement of diverse cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes. We posit that using experimental concepts to model pathways, or directional relationships between student activities and outcomes, will allow us to identify the critical features that should be included in the design of all CUREs and gain insight into the latitude we have in effectively implementing CUREs."
They develop possible, probable, and proposed outcomes as the results of their course design recommendations (probably worth looking at, just because it's Dolan)
Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences
Hanauer, David I., and Graham Hatfull. “Measuring Networking as an Outcome Variable in Undergraduate Research Experiences.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 14.4 (2015): ar38. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"What networks emerge as a result of the taking part in a CURE? Or on an even simpler level, who is the young researcher actually talking to while participating in a research experience?"
Honestly doesn't look like it will be very much help to what we are trying to write here. (With research comes working with people, i.e. networking)
Promoting Undergraduate Interest, Preparedness, and Professional Pursuit in the Sciences: An Outcomes Evaluation of the SURE Program at Emory University
Junge, Benjamin et al. “Promoting Undergraduate Interest, Preparedness, and Professional Pursuit in the Sciences: An Outcomes Evaluation of the SURE Program at Emory University.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 9.2 (2010): 119–132. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"Using follow-up survey data and academic transcripts, we gauge SURE's impact on levels of interest in, preparedness for, and actual pursuit of graduate study and professional careers in the sciences for the program's first 15 summer cohorts (1990–2004). Our follow-up survey indicated significant increases in all research preparedness skills considered, notably in ability to give a poster research presentation, to discuss research at a graduate school interview, and to apply research ethics principles. About a third of SURE graduates went on to complete a graduate degree >90% considered SURE as important or very important in their academic development."
SURE. looking at self-reported interest, preparedness, and pursuit...Also looked at transcript grades in the sciences of SURE and non-SURE participants.... might be good to look at as it is one of the few articles taht talks specifically about sure, just for some results.
A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics
Lopatto, David et al. “A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 13.4 (2014): 711–723. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses."
GOOD FOR INTRO??
this one would be good to look at if we want specific encouragement for departmental reorganization or at least support
Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE): First Findings
Lopatto, David et al. “Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE): First Findings.” Cell Biology Education 3.4 (2004): 270–277. www.lifescied.org. Web.
"These questions are: 1) Is the educational experience of undergraduates being enhanced? 2) Are undergraduate research programs attracting and supporting talented students interested in a career involving scientific research? 3) Are undergraduate research programs retaining minority students in the “pathway” to a scientific career?"
the survey used to (very subjectively) determine whether students have benefitted from undergraduate research experience. probably don't need to look at it much, but maybe reference it.
Undergraduate Research Experiences Support Science Career Decisions and Active Learning
Lopatto, David et al. “Undergraduate Research Experiences Support Science Career Decisions and Active Learning.” CBE Life Sciences Education 6.4 (2007): 297–306. PubMed Central. Web.
"The follow-up survey indicated that students reported gains in independence, intrinsic motivation to learn, and active participation in courses taken after the summer undergraduate research experience."
report about the use of the SURE survey...very subjective self-reported
A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time
Shaffer, Christopher D. et al. “A Course-Based Research Experience: How Benefits Change with Increased Investment in Instructional Time.” CBE life sciences education 13.1 (2014): 111–130. PubMed. Web.
"We conclude: 1) implementation of a bioinformatics project within the biology curriculum provides a mechanism for successfully engaging large numbers of students in undergraduate research; 2) benefits to students are achievable at a wide variety of academic institutions; and 3) successful implementation of course-based research experiences requires significant investment of instructional time for students to gain full benefit."
research at scale, but maybe going against that at the same time? have to look into the "increased instructional time" and what that entails.
Comparing the Impact of Course-Based and Apprentice-Based Research Experiences in a Life Science Laboratory Curriculum
Shapiro, Casey et al. “Comparing the Impact of Course-Based and Apprentice-Based Research Experiences in a Life Science Laboratory Curriculum.” Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education 16.2 (2015): 186–197. PubMed Central. Web.
"Students conveyed which aspects of the curriculum were critical to their learning and development of research-oriented skills. Students’ interests in biology increased upon completion of the curriculum, inspiring a subset of CURE participants to subsequently pursue further research. A rubric-guided performance evaluation, employed to directly measure learning, revealed differences in learning gains for CURE versus ARE participants, with evidence suggesting a CURE can reduce the achievement gap between high-performing students and their peers."
tried to quantify and make less subjective by using a rubric and looking at archived student assignments. I don't really understand what they did, but they said that CUREs could increase performance.
should look at this one again.
Considering the Role of Affect in Learning: Monitoring Students’ Self-Efficacy, Sense of Belonging, and Science Identity
Trujillo, Gloriana, and Kimberly D. Tanner. “Considering the Role of Affect in Learning: Monitoring Students’ Self-Efficacy, Sense of Belonging, and Science Identity.” CBE-Life Sciences Education 13.1 (2014): 6–15. www.lifescied.org. Web.
A Comprehensive Faculty, Staff, and Student Training Program Enhances Student Perceptions of a Course-Based Research Experience at a Two-Year Institution
Wolkow, Thomas D. et al. “A Comprehensive Faculty, Staff, and Student Training Program Enhances Student Perceptions of a Course-Based Research Experience at a Two-Year Institution.” CBE life sciences education 13.4 (2014): 724–737. PubMed. Web.
"We conclude that early research experiences can succeed at 2-yr institutions, provided that a comprehensive implementation strategy targeting instructor, student, and support staff training is in place."
subjective, about "enjoying the labs significantly more than traditional labs"